These transgenic mice express the cholera toxin intracellular enzymatic subunit A1 under the direction of the human dopamine receptor D1, DRD1, promoter. Expression of the cholera toxin in the D1 dopamine receptor subtype neurons results in chronic potentiate neural activity in this specific neuron subset. This mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome and Trichotillomania.
Frank H Burton, University of Minnesota
These transgenic mice express the cholera toxin intracellular enzymatic subunit A1 under the direction of the human dopamine receptor D1, DRD1, promoter. Expression of the cholera toxin in the D1 dopamine receptor subtype-expressing neurons results in chronic potentiation of neural activity in this specific neuron subset. CNS expression of the transgene is regionally restricted and is detected only in the piriform cortex layer II, the amygdalar intercalated nucleus (ICN), and the somatosensory cortical areas layer II-III. Transgenic mice have elevated cortical cAMP levels. Transgenic mice exhibit trichotillomania-like excessive grooming, plucking, scratching and non-aggressive biting behavior during self- and social-grooming, as early as 3 weeks of age. These behaviors can result in skin, tail or periorbital (eye area) lesions on the transgenic mice and to skin or tail lesions on their cagemates. Hyperlocomotion (increased motion, wall leaping, gnawing) that is similar to drug induced hyperactivity, other psychomotor abnormalities are also displayed by transgenic mice as well as obsessive-compulsive disorder-like episodes of generalized perseveration of all otherwise normal behaviors. Transgenic mice exhibit increased anxiety response, as measured by behavioral indicators such as increased thigmotaxis (tendency to remain along the perimeter walls of an open area), and Tourette's Syndrome-like behaviors (juvenile-onset tics in both transgenic males and females, with increased tic severity and flurries in transgenic males). Transgenic mice may appear slightly smaller than wildtype littermates and can develop a more hunched and scruffy appearance in adulthood. Homozygous and hemizygous mice have significant breeding difficulty, viability obstacles, and reduced transgene inheritance (see details below). This mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Trichotillomania.
Homozygous and hemizygous females do not breed and are not good mothers due to their anxiety and grooming-biting phenotype (leading to biting of litters). Homozygous and hemizygous males are fertile, but may sometimes bite their litters. Transgenic mice housed with cagemates may inadvertently but repeatedly injure them (e.g., tail loss, skin wounds) by excessively biting during social grooming; these injuries can be minimized by housing transgenic mice with multiple cagemates and including an interior domicile (mouse dome) in the cage as a retreat. When breeding wildtype or BALB/c females with transgenic males at The Jackson Laboratory Repository, pups exhibit diminished transgene inheritance (~33% rather than the expected ~50%).
A transgenic construct containing the cholera toxin gene under the control of the 6.5 kb promoter of the human dopamine receptor D1, DRD1, was injected into fertilized BALB/c X C57BL/6 hybrid fertilized eggs. Founder line 7 subsequently was established. Founder animals were backcrossed to BALB/cJ for 8 generations, then backcrossed to BALB/cAnNCrI for 22 generations before arriving at The Jackson Laboratory.
|Expressed Gene||ctxA, cholera enterotoxin, A subunit, Vibrio cholerae,|
|Site of Expression|
|Allele Name||transgene insertion 7, Frank H Burton|
|Allele Type||Transgenic (Inserted expressed sequence)|
|Allele Synonym(s)||D1CT-7; Ticcy|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Tg(DRD1-ctxA)7Burt, transgene insertion 7, Frank H Burton|
|Gene Synonym(s)||D1CT-7; Ticcy|
|Promoter||DRD1, dopamine receptor D1, human|
|Expressed Gene||ctxA, cholera enterotoxin, A subunit, Vibrio cholerae,|
|Strain of Origin||BALB/c x C57BL/6|
|Mutations Made By|| |
Frank Burton, University of Minnesota
When maintaining a live colony, the recommended strategy is breeding wildtype females from the colony or BALB/cJ females with hemizygous males. The donating investigator recommends a large maintenance colony, suggesting that 15-20 symptomatic transgenic males each in breeding pairs with multiple BALB/c females is likely required to account for the variable breeding, viability obstacles, and reduced transgene inheritance of transgenic mice. In our experience only ~33% of pups produced these crosses inherit the transgene (~ 50% expected from Mendelian inheritance).
Transgenic females are fertile, and may be bred with either wildtype males from the colony or BALB/cJ males. They are not good mothers, however, due to their anxiety and grooming-biting phenotype, and may inadvertently injure or kill their pups. If a transgenic dam does get pregnant, all pups born should be transferred immediately to foster mothers to avoid the transgenic dams' cannibalistic behavior.
According to the donating investigator, homozygous transgenic mice are viable. Homozygous transgenic males, reportedly, are fertile, but homozygous females do not breed. We have never attempted to produce or breed homozygous transgenic mice at The Jackson Laboratory.
Transgenic mice may inadvertently but repeatedly injure cagemates(e.g., tail loss, skin wounds) by excessively biting during social grooming. Housing transgenic mice with multiple cagemates and including an interior domicile (mouse dome) in the cage as a retreat can help to minimize these injuries.
The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided,
their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of
each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders
are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in
order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks.
The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.
Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation.
Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.
The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCT(S)" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "SERVICES" means projects conducted by JACKSON for other parties that may include but are not limited to the use of MICE or PRODUCTS. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or SERVICES provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON’s prior written authorization.
MICE, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ARE PROVIDED "AS IS". JACKSON EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, WITH RESPECT TO MICE, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.
In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of, PRODUCTS or SERVICES, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the PRODUCT received or the SERVICES provided; JACKSON makes no other representations and this shall be the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. Please note specific policy for live mice.
Consistent with the requirement for a written understanding regarding animal care and use, the JACKSON Animal Care and Use Committee will review the animal care and use protocol(s) associated with any SERVICES to be performed at JACKSON, and JACKSON shall have ultimate responsibility and authority for the care of animals while on site or in JACKSON custody.
In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS, or SERVICES, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS, or SERVICES from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.
MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.
The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS, or SERVICES may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and SERVICES by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.
Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES by JACKSON.