Mice homozygous for the targeted allele are viable yet sterile and exhibit a progressive development of a type 2 diabetic phenotype. At birth, mice are slightly (10%) smaller than wildtype littermates. This weight difference is maintained from birth through adulthood. Elevated blood sugar levels can be detected by 3 days of age. By 3-6 weeks of age mice develop fasting hyperglycemia and become diabetic by 10 weeks. A reduced beta-cell mass can be detected by 4 weeks and a profound insulin resistance is observed in skeletal muscle and liver tissue by 6-8 weeks. Levels of fasting sugars continue to rise until male mice eventually succumb to dehydration and hyperosomolar coma. Female mice, while exhibiting a similar progression, tend not to die. This mutant mouse represents a model useful in studies related to type 2 diabetes.
A targeting vector containing neomycin resistance and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase genes was used to delete the entire insulin receptor 2 gene. The construct was electroporated into 129X1/SvJ x 129S1/Sv-derived R1 embryonic stem (ES) cells in the laboratory of Dr. Morris White, Joslin Diabetes Center/HHMI, Boston. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into C57BL/6 blastocysts. The resulting chimeric animals were crossed to C57BL/6 mice.
|Allele Name||targeted mutation 1, Morris F White|
|Allele Type||Targeted (Null/Knockout)|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Irs2, insulin receptor substrate 2|
|Strain of Origin||(129X1/SvJ x 129S1/Sv)F1-Kitl+|
|Molecular Note||A targeting vector containing a PGK-neomycin cassette replaced the entire gene. Lack of protein was demonstrated in liver and muscle extracts by Western analysis in homozygous mutant animals.|
|Mutations Made By|| |
Morris White, Joslin Diabetes Center/HHMI
Mice bearing the Irs2tm1Mfw allele were crossed to B6;129-Stat6tm1Gru targeted mutant mice in the laboratory of Dr. Michael Grusby, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston. The double mutant mice were kindly donated to The Jackson Laboratory. The Stat6tm1Gru allele was bred out of the stock which is currently maintained by breeding heterozygotes. Note that homozygotes are sterile.
When using the IRS-2 KO mouse strain in a publication, please cite the originating article(s) and include JAX stock #004421 in your Materials and Methods section.
"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCT(S)" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "SERVICES" means projects conducted by JACKSON for other parties that may include but are not limited to the use of MICE or PRODUCTS. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or SERVICES provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON’s prior written authorization.
MICE, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ARE PROVIDED "AS IS". JACKSON EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, WITH RESPECT TO MICE, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.
In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of, PRODUCTS or SERVICES, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the PRODUCT received or the SERVICES provided; JACKSON makes no other representations and this shall be the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. Please note specific policy for live mice.
Consistent with the requirement for a written understanding regarding animal care and use, the JACKSON Animal Care and Use Committee will review the animal care and use protocol(s) associated with any SERVICES to be performed at JACKSON, and JACKSON shall have ultimate responsibility and authority for the care of animals while on site or in JACKSON custody.
In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS, or SERVICES, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS, or SERVICES from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.
MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.
The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS, or SERVICES may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and SERVICES by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.
Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or SERVICES by JACKSON.