Mice homozygous for the lymphoproliferation complementing gld spontaneous mutation (Faslpr-cg) are viable and fertile. Homozygous mutant mice are characterized by massive lymphadenopathy. Faslpr-cg complemented both Faslpr and the Faslgld mutation in that double heterozygotes with either mutation had lymphadenopathy. However, further crosses showed the new mutation to be an allele at Faslpr. Like Faslpr and Faslgld homozygotes, CBA/KlJms-Faslpr-cg homozygotes (Stock No. 001876) produce antibodies to some nuclear antigens, such as dsDNA, ssDNA, and poly(ADP-ribose); however, they do not produce anti-erythrocyte antibodies. Although they exhibit lymphoid cell infiltration around blood vessels in lung, liver, and kidney, they lack the immune-complex glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, and interstitial pneumonia characteristic of Faslpr homozygotes. Faslpr-cg homozygotes on the MRL/MpJ genetic background developed glomerulonephritic lesions similar to those of MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mutants, but at a lower frequency, suggesting MRL/MpJ background genes control this aspect of the disease.
MRL/MpJ, and one of its ancestral strains LG/J, display heightened wound healing relative to a panel of other inbred strains. At 4 weeks post-injury, 2mm ear punch wounds healed to 0-0.4mm in MRL/MpJ mice but were still 1.2-1.6mm in C57BL/6 mice. At 15 days post-injury C57BL/6 showed a maximal closure of 30% reduction in ear hole size while MRL showed 85% reduction. The process of healing in MRL/MpJ mice was faster, more complete, showed increased swelling, angiogenesis, fibroblast migration, extracellular matrix deposition, and decreased scarring and fibrosis. Additionally, hair follicles and accompanying sebaceous glands were regenerated to a much greater degree. The other ancestral strains of MRL/MpJ (C3H, C57BL/6, and AKR) do not display this enhanced healing. Bone marrow transplantation showed that the MRL/MpJ healing phenotype did not readily transfer with bone marrow and did remain in the irradiated host tissues. Enhanced healing of cardiac wounds has also been reported in MRL/MpJ mice. In this model a very high mitotic index (10-20%) was found, similar to that seen in non-mammalian tissue regeneration. Using F2 and backcross mapping of MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr x B6 progeny McBrearty et al. identified wound healing QTLs: the heal2 and heal3 loci were identified on MRL/MpJ chromosome 13 in the region of D13Mit115 and D13Mit129 respectively; the heal5 locus was identified on MRL/MpJ chromosome 12 in the region of D12Mit233; the heal1 locus was identified on chromosome 8 of C57BL/6 in the region of D8Mit211; and a highly suggestive locus was found on MRL/MpJ chromosome 7 in the region of D7Mit220. (Clark et al., 1998; Leferovich et al., 2001; Kench et al., 1999; McBrearty et al., 1998.)
Microarray analysis and SELDI ProteinChip analysis have identified multiple genes and proteins that have varied expression in the ear punch wounds of MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr versus C57BL/6. The changes in expression patterns suggest that in MRL/MpJ mice there is less of an inflammatory response and an earlier transition into tissue repair than is seen in C57BL/6. (Li et al., 2000 and 2001.)
Blankenhorn et al. found that MRL/MpJ females heal faster and more completely than males. Some heal QTL are sexually dimorphic with heal 2, 3, 7, 8, 10,and 11 having greater effect in males and heal 4, 5,and 9 having greater effect in females. Castration improves wound healing in MRL/MpJ males to nearly the degree seen in females, but ovariectomy does not improve the degree of healing seen in MRL/MpJ females. (Blankenhorn et al., 2003)
Relative to B10.D2nSnJ mice, MRL/MpJ mice have decreased Neutrophil accumulation in the bronchiolar lavage in response to LPS infusion and tests using bone marrow chimeras revealed that the pulmonary inflammatory response transfers with bone marrow. Transforming growth factor beta 1 autologous induction is reduced in MRL/MpJ splenocytes while macrophages show a reduction in the transforming growth factor beta 1induction of interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha production but no significant reduction in transforming growth factor beta 1 production. (Kench et al., 1999.)
The Faslpr-cg mutation occurred spontaneously in a subline of the inbred strain CBA/KlJms maintained at the Institute of Medical Science in Tokyo.
|Allele Name||lymphoproliferation complementing gld|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Fas, Fas (TNF receptor superfamily member 6)|
|Gene Synonym(s)||AI196731; ALPS1A; APO-1; APT1; CD95; FAS1; FASTM; TNF receptor superfamily member 6; TNFR6; TNFRSF6; Tnfrsf6; Tnfrsf6; expressed sequence AI196731; lpr; lymphoproliferation|
|Strain of Origin||CBA/KlJms|
|General Note||This mutation, which produces massive lymphadenopathy in homozygotes, occurred spontaneously in a subline of the inbred strain CBA/KlJms maintained at the Institute of Medical Science in Tokyo. Faslpr-cg complemented both Faslpr and the generalized lymphoproliferative disease Faslgld mutation in that double heterozygotes with either mutation had lymphadenopathy. However, further crosses showed the new mutation to be an allele at Faslpr (J:24805). Like Faslpr and Faslgld mutant homozygotes, CBA-Faslpr-cg/Faslpr-cg mutants produce antibodies to some nuclear antigens, such as dsDNA, ssDNA, and poly(ADP-ribose); however, they do not produce anti-erythrocyte antibodies. Although they exhibit lymphoid cell infiltration around blood vessels in lung, liver, and kidney, they lack the immune-complex glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, and interstitial pneumonia characteristic of Faslpr homozygotes (J:616). Faslpr-cg homozygotes on the MRL genetic background developed glomerulonephritic lesions similar to those of MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mutants, although at a lower frequency, suggesting MRL/MpJ background genes control this aspect of the disease (J:1753). Studies of Faslpr and Faslpr-cg homozygotes in athymic nude (Hfh11nu/Hfh11nu) mice show that the thymus is critical for lymphadenopathy and autoimmunity (J:582).|
|Molecular Note||A T-to-A transversion point mutation at nucleotide 786 results in replacement by asparagine of a highly conserved isoleucine in the cytoplasmic region of the encoded protein.|
Due to the heightened healing which occurs in mice with the MRL genetic background, ear punch is not expected to be a good method for individual mouse identification in this strain.
When using the lpr<sup>cg</sup> mouse strain in a publication, please cite the originating article(s) and include JAX stock #002983 in your Materials and Methods section.
|Heterozygous for Fas<lpr-cg>|
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