PL/J mice are widely used in studies of retinal degeneration and other areas of research. PL/J mice show a moderate susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalitis with late onset and high mortality. Reports of leukemia incidence vary from 50% in females and 19% in males to 80-90%. In addition to a low threshold to electroconvulsive seizures, PL/J mice are susceptible to handling and rhythmic tossing-induced seizures and very highly responsive to phytohemagglutinin.Read More +
This strain is homozygous for the retinal degeneration allele Pde6brd1.
PL/J mice show a moderate susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalitis (EAE) with late onset and high mortality. Reports of leukemia incidence vary from 50% in females and 19% in males to 80-90%. In addition to a low threshold to electroconvulsive seizures, PL/J mice are susceptible to handling and rhythmic tossing-induced seizures (Kitami et al. 2004) and very highly responsive to phytohemagglutinin (Heiniger et al. 1975).
The PL inbred strain was developed by Clara J Lynch at The Rockefeller Institute as a high-leukemia strain. PL mice were transferred to The Jackson Laboratory in 1951 at F22.
|Allele Type||Spontaneous (Not Specified)|
|Allele Synonym(s)||deletion; Gpr84del|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Gpr84, G protein-coupled receptor 84|
|Gene Synonym(s)||GPCR4; EX33|
|Strain of Origin||multiple strains|
|Molecular Note||This spontaneously arising frameshift deletion is located in exon 2 at position 103308576 bp (NCBI Build 37) and results in a premature stop codon. The mutation is predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane domains 4-7. The inbred strains BDP/J, DBA/1J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, FVB/NJ, LG/J, MRL/MpJ, NODShi/LtJ, NOR/LtJ, P/J, PL/J, SKHIN/Sprd, SJL/J, SM/J are homozygous for the deletion. The allele is segregating in the outbred stocks ICR and CD-1.|
|Allele Name||age related hearing loss 1|
|Allele Synonym(s)||age related hearing loss 1; Cdh23ahl|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Cdh23, cadherin 23 (otocadherin)|
|Gene Synonym(s)||bob; bustling; bobby; nmf112; nmf252; nmf252; 4930542A03Rik; ahl; 4930542A03Rik; W; sals; mdfw; neuroscience mutagenesis facility, 181; neuroscience mutagenesis facility, 252; modifier of deaf waddler; age related hearing loss 1; v; USH1D; nmf181; RIKEN cDNA 4930542A03 gene; CDHR23; sals; waltzer; nmf112; nmf181; mdfw; neuroscience mutagenesis facility, 112; bus; ahl; bob; salsa; PITA5|
|Strain of Origin||multiple strains|
|Molecular Note||Genetic complementation tests have shown allelism between the mdfw (modifier of deaf waddler) locus and the ahl locus. Further analysis has shown this is caused by a G to A transition at nucleotide position 753 of Cdh23. This hypomorphic allele causes in frame skipping of exon 7, which is predicted to delete part of the 2nd and 3rd ectodomains, and cause reduced message stability. Twenty-seven strains classified with ahl and carrying the 753A allele include: CD-1, RBF/DnJ, PL/J, AKR/J, RF/J, BALB/cBy, A/WySnJ, P/J, SENCARA/PtJ, DBA/1J, ALS/LtJ, C58/J, C57BLKS/J, 129P1/ReJ, C57BR/cd, SKH2/J, BUB/Bn, MA/MyJ, LP/J, 129X1/SvJ, NOR/LtJ, A/J, C57BL/6, NOD/LtJ, DBA/2J, ALR/LtJ, C57L/J. Strains classified with ahl that DO NOT carry this mutation include: C3H/HeSnJ, I/LnJ, YBR/Ei, MRL/MpJ.|
|Allele Name||myxovirus susceptibility 1|
|Allele Synonym(s)||Mx1s1; myxovirus susceptibility 1|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Mx1, MX dynamin-like GTPase 1|
|Gene Synonym(s)||Mx; Mx-1; Mx; Mx-1; AI893580; myxovirus (influenza) resistance 1 polypeptide; expressed sequence AI893580; IFI-78K; MxA; MX; IFI78; MXB; lncMX1-215|
|Strain of Origin||multiple strains|
|General Note|| |
The Mx genes determine resistance to the lethal effects of various myxoviruses including neurotropic avian influenza A virus injected intracerebrally, pneumotropic strains injected intranasally, and a hepatotropic strain injected intraperitoneally (J:5645, J:13136). Resistance is not dependent on presence of the thymus and is not abolished by immunosuppression or by inhibitors of macrophage function (J:5735, J:5478, J:5645). Resistance is specific for the orthomyxoviruses (J:6265). It is dependent on the presence of interferon-alpha and -beta but not -gamma (J:7365).
The resistance allele at the Mx1 locus, under induction by alpha/beta interferon, produces the 75 kDa protein MX-1, which confers resistance to the influenza virus, in the nuclei of cells carrying the allele. Susceptibility alleles do not produce the protein (J:8273). The protein is located in the nucleus (J:7703) and produces its antiviral effect by preventing synthesis of viral mRNA in the nucleus (J:7992). Nuclear localization is necessary for anti-influenza virus activity (J:1417), but mutations induced in Mx1 showed that nuclear position was not sufficient for the effect; mutations in several domains can cause its loss (J:11840). The MX-1 protein is a GTPase containing a GTP binding domain (J:1417) and this binding core is also necessary (J:21243).
Resistance is expressed by macrophages and other cells in vitro (J:6649, J:5940) but could not be transferred to susceptible animals by transfer of macrophages from resistant mice (J:6149).
Resistance to infection with two tick-borne viruses, Thogoto virus (J:8273) and Dhori virus (J:27760), is also conferred by Mx1r.
The Mx1r allele occurs only in strains A2G, SL/NiA, and T9, the latter being a strain derived from an influenza-resistant wild stock, and CAST/Ei, derived from Mus musculus castaneus. Most inbred strains, including C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, and BALB/cJ, carry an influenza susceptible Mx1s1 allele which produces mRNA lacking exons 9, 10, and 11 of the Mx1r allele. This large deletion apparently renders the protein incapable of providing resistance to influenza. The CBA/J, CE/J, I/LnJ, and PERA/Ei strains, also susceptible to the virus, have another form of the Mx1s2 allele in which there is a nonsense mutation (J:9452).
Interferon is induced by viral infection and in turn induces the Mx protein (J:7703). Although some interferon-induced genes respond directly to virus invasion as well as indirectly through induction by virus-induced interferon, this primary response is very weak for the MX-1 protein in response to either influenza or Newcastle disease viruses (J:1892).
|Molecular Note||Many inbred mouse strains have an exon 9 to 11 deletion, resulting in a null allele and susceptibility to myxoviruses, including: A/J, ABP/Le, AKR/J, AU/SsJ, BALB/cJ, BDP/J, BUB/BnJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/10J, C57BL/KsJ, C57L/J, C58/J, DA/HuSn, DBA/2J, FSB/GnEi, FVB/NJ, LIS/A, LP/J, MA/MyJ, MAS/A, NZB/BINJ, P/J, PL/J, RIIIS/J, RF/J, SEA/GnJ, SEC1/ReJ, SJL/J, ST/bJ, TS1/A, TW1/A. YBR/Ei, 020/A, 129/J, SF/CamEi and SK/CamEi.|
|Allele Name||retinal degeneration 1|
|Allele Synonym(s)||retinal degeneration 1; Pde6brd1|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Pde6b, phosphodiesterase 6B, cGMP, rod receptor, beta polypeptide|
|Gene Synonym(s)||rd; rd1; Pdeb; r; rd; rd10; nmf137; r; retinal degeneration; retinal degeneration 1; retinal degeneration 10; CSNB3; CSNBAD2; rd1; rd-1; rd10; PDEB; RP40; phosphodiesterase, cGMP, rod receptor, beta polypeptide; Pdeb; GMP-PDEbeta|
|Strain of Origin||various|
|General Note||The following inbred strains are known to be homozygous for Pde6b |
|Molecular Note||Two mutations have been identified in rd1 mice. A murine leukimia virus (Xmv-28) insertion in reverse orientation in intron 1 is found in all mouse strains with the rd1 phenotype. Further, a nonsense mutation (C to A transversion) in codon 347 that results in a truncation eliminating more than half of the predicted encoded protein, including the catalytic domain has also been identified in all rd1 strains of mice. A specific degradation of mutant transcript during or after pre-mRNA splicing is suggested.|
When using the PL/J mouse strain in a publication, please include JAX stock #000680 in your Materials and Methods section.
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