CE/J mice are very responsive to phytohemagglutinin and resistant to amyloid induction and development of amyloidosis. CE/J mice express a single isoform of SAA designated SAA2.2, which is structurally unable to form amyloid fibrils. Viral expression of amyloidogenic proteins in CE/J mice does result in amyloid depostion, making this a useful model to examine the amyloid deposition potential of altered SAA proteins. These mice have a high incidence of ovarian tumors and hepatomas.Read More +
This strain is homozygous for Cdh23ahl, the age related hearing loss 1 mutation, which on this background results in progressive hearing loss with onset after 10 months of age. Of note, most mice exhibit a small ear phenotype; the cause has not been determined.
CE/J mice are very responsive to phytohemagglutinin and resistant to amyloid induction and development of amyloidosis. Amyloidosis is the extracellular deposition of the acute phase protein 'serum amyloid A' (SAA), which is induced in response to inflammation. CE/J mice express a single isoform of SAA designated SAA2.2, which is structurally unable to form amyloid fibrils. Viral expression of amyloidogenic proteins in CE/J mice does result in amyloid depostion, making this a useful model to examine the amyloid deposition potential of altered SAA proteins.
Early studies by Dr. Margaret Dickie reported that approximately 1/3 of CE females and of reciprocal DBA x CE F1 hybrids were found to have ovarian tumors at 20 months of age. Virgin reciprocal DBA x CE F1 hybrids were found to develop hyperplasia of the uterus and an increased uterine sensitivity to estrogen that increases with age. This pathology results from a hormonal imbalance characteristic of this F1 cross and breeding the female can ameliorate this trait.
It has also been reported that gonadectomized CE females and males develop adrenal cortical tumors by 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. Adrenal cortical tumorogenesis appeared to be followed by development of secondary sex organs in these gonadectomized mice. Basophile pituitary tumors were also found after 14 months of age in gonadectomized CE mice and F1 hybrids of CE and DBA or C57. The highest incidence was seen in reciprocal CE x DBA F1 hybrids.
Another early study reported that an increase in diet fat content from 4% to 11% strongly enhanced hepatocarcinogenesis in the male F1 hybrid offspring of CE/J with DBA/1J or DBA/2J, or C3H/He but not C57BL/6J. Subsequently, in 1971 Festing and Blackmore published the results of a life span and spontaneous disease profile of 15 inbred mice housed under specific-pathogen-free conditions. Autopsy results of 40 CE mice revealed a high incidence of hepatomas, but no other significant finding.
Derived from wild mutant trapped in Illinois by J. E. Knight in 1920. Inbred by Eaton and obtained by The Jackson Laboratory from G.W. Woolley in 1948.
|Allele Name||mutation 1|
|Allele Synonym(s)||Il3raA/J; Il3ran|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Il3ra, interleukin 3 receptor, alpha chain|
|Strain of Origin||multiple strains|
|General Note||This allele has been identified in A/J, A/WySnJ, A/HeJ, C58/J, RF/J, AKR/J, SM/J, BUB/BnJ, CE/J, and NZB/B1NJ. see J:24918.|
|Molecular Note||Sequence analysis revealed A/J mice lack the sequence corresponding to exon 8, which encodes 10 amino acid residues in the extracellular domain. Aberrant splicing was due to a 5 base pair deletion at the branch point in intron 7.|
|Allele Synonym(s)||C5-; C5-d; C5-def; C5-deficient; HcHfib2; hco|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Hc, hemolytic complement|
|Strain of Origin||multiple strains|
|General Note|| |
This is an allele characteristic of various inbred mouse strains including the following: A/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J, DBA/2J, NZB/B1NJ, SWR/J, B10.D2/oSnJ
Hc was identified as a candidate gene for Abhr2 in a microarray analysis of lung mRNA from A/J, C3H/HeJ, and (A/J x C3H/HeJ)F1 x A/J backcross animals. Hc genotype shows statistically significant correlation to allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsive phenotype. The A/J allele contains a 2 bp deletion resulting in deficient Hc mRNA and protein production and is associated with susceptibility to allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (J:108211)
|Molecular Note||A 2 base "TA" deletion at positions 62 and 63 of an 83 base pair exon near the 5' end of the gene is found in the following mouse strains: A/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, KK/HlJ, MOLF/EiJ, NZB/B1NJ, RF/J, ST/bJ SWR/J, B10.D2/oSnJ. The consequence of this deletion is the creation of a stop codon starting four bases after the deletion. A truncated product of 216 amino acids is predicted as a result although contradictory reports exist that a larger pro-C5 protein may be synthesized. Nevertheless, macrophages from mouse strains carrying this allele do not secrete complement 5.|
|Allele Name||age related hearing loss 1|
|Allele Synonym(s)||Cdh23753A; mdfw|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Cdh23, cadherin 23 (otocadherin)|
|Strain of Origin||multiple strains|
|Molecular Note||Genetic complementation tests have shown allelism between the mdfw (modifier of deaf waddler) locus and the ahl locus. Further analysis has shown this is caused by a G to A transition at coding nucleotide position 753 of Cdh23 (SNP rs257098870). This hypomorphic allele changes splice donor site G-GT to A-GT, causing frame skipping of exon 7. This is predicted to delete part of the 2nd and 3rd ectodomains and cause reduced message stability. Twenty-seven strains classified with ahl and carrying the 753A allele include: CD-1, RBF/DnJ, PL/J, AKR/J, RF/J, BALB/cBy, A/WySnJ, P/J, SENCARA/PtJ, DBA/1J, ALS/LtJ, C58/J, C57BLKS/J, 129P1/ReJ, C57BR/cd, SKH2/J, BUB/Bn, MA/MyJ, LP/J, 129X1/SvJ, NOR/LtJ, A/J, C57BL/6, NOD/LtJ, DBA/2J, ALR/LtJ, C57L/J. Strains classified with ahl that DO NOT carry this mutation include: 129S1/SvImJ, C3H/HeSnJ, I/LnJ, YBR/Ei, MRL/MpJ.|
|Allele Name||myxovirus susceptibility 2|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Mx1, MX dynamin-like GTPase 1|
|Strain of Origin||multiple strains|
|General Note|| |
The Mx genes determine resistance to the lethal effects of various myxoviruses including neurotropic avian influenza A virus injected intracerebrally, pneumotropic strains injected intranasally, and a hepatotropic strain injected intraperitoneally (J:5645, J:13136). Resistance is not dependent on presence of the thymus and is not abolished by immunosuppression or by inhibitors of macrophage function (J:5735, J:5478, J:5645). Resistance is specific for the orthomyxoviruses (J:6265). It is dependent on the presence of interferon-alpha and -beta but not -gamma (J:7365).
The resistance allele at the Mx1 locus, under induction by alpha/beta interferon, produces the 75 kDa protein MX-1, which confers resistance to the influenza virus, in the nuclei of cells carrying the allele. Susceptibility alleles do not produce the protein (J:8273). The protein is located in the nucleus (J:7703) and produces its antiviral effect by preventing synthesis of viral mRNA in the nucleus (J:7992). Nuclear localization is necessary for anti-influenza virus activity (J:1417), but mutations induced in Mx1 showed that nuclear position was not sufficient for the effect; mutations in several domains can cause its loss (J:11840). The MX-1 protein is a GTPase containing a GTP binding domain (J:1417) and this binding core is also necessary (J:21243).
Resistance is expressed by macrophages and other cells in vitro (J:6649, J:5940) but could not be transferred to susceptible animals by transfer of macrophages from resistant mice (J:6149).
Resistance to infection with two tick-borne viruses, Thogoto virus (J:8273) and Dhori virus (J:27760), is also conferred by Mx1r.
The Mx1r allele occurs only in strains A2G, SL/NiA, and T9, the latter being a strain derived from an influenza-resistant wild stock, and CAST/Ei, derived from Mus musculus castaneus. Most inbred strains, including C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, and BALB/cJ, carry an influenza susceptible Mx1s1 allele which produces mRNA lacking exons 9, 10, and 11 of the Mx1r allele. This large deletion apparently renders the protein incapable of providing resistance to influenza. The CBA/J, CE/J, I/LnJ, and PERA/Ei strains, also susceptible to the virus, have another form of the Mx1s2 allele in which there is a nonsense mutation (J:9452).
Interferon is induced by viral infection and in turn induces the Mx protein (J:7703). Although some interferon-induced genes respond directly to virus invasion as well as indirectly through induction by virus-induced interferon, this primary response is very weak for the MX-1 protein in response to either influenza or Newcastle disease viruses (J:1892).
|Molecular Note||CBA/J, CE/J, I/LnJ and PERA/Ei strains have a nonsense mutation that results in a null allele and susceptibility to myxoviruses.|
|Allele Name||b-2 variant|
|Allele Type||Not Applicable|
|Allele Synonym(s)||Ahb-2; Ahh|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Ahr, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor|
|Strain of Origin||BALB/cBy|
|General Note||C57BL/6 carries the responsive Ahrb allele; DBA/2 carries nonresponsive Ahrd. Heterozygotes (Ahrb/Ahrd) are responsive (J:5282). Later work identified a second (J:8895) and later a third (J:22144) allele conferring response. Thus the allele in C57, C58, and MA/My strains is now Ahrb-1; Ahrb-2 is carried by BALB/cBy, A, and C3H; and Ahrb-3 by Mus spretus, M. caroli, and MOLF/Ei. The nonresponsive strains AKR, DBA/2, and 129 carry Ahrd (J:22144). Nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences between Ahrb-1 and Ahrd have been determined (J:17460). |
Strain of origin - this allele was found in BALB/cByJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, CBA strains
|Molecular Note||This allele encodes a high affinity, heat labile, 104 kDa receptor containing 848 amino acids. Sequencing studies of cDNA from C57BL/6J congenic mice homozygous for this allele identified nucleotide substitutions in the ORF that would cause 5 amino acid differences between the C57BL/6J and BALB/cBy peptides, and 2 amino acid differences between the BALB/cBy and DBA/2J peptides. A T to C transition in exon 11 replaces the opal termination codon in the C57BL/6J allele with an arginine codon in the BALB/cBy allele. This change would extend translation of the BALB/cBy mRNA by 43 amino acids, accounting for the larger size of the peptide produced by this allele (104 kDa, vs 95 kDa for the C57BL/6J allele).|
|Allele Name||extreme dilution|
|Allele Synonym(s)||cd; ce|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Tyr, tyrosinase|
|Strain of Origin||wild|
|General Note||Tyrc-e, extreme dilution. This mutation was found in the wild by Detlefsen (J:34484). Hair is very light gray, and eyes are black. Melanin granules of both retinal and neural-crest derived melanocytes are pigmented but are smaller and fewer than normal (J:12970, J:5001). Tyrosinase activity in the skin is very low (J:30744). Tyrc-e/Tyrc mice are almost white with black eyes.|
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