Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J Mice

Stock No: 380050 | DIO Black 6
Contact: orderquest@jax.org | 1.800.422.6423(US) | 1.207.288.5845(International)

PLACE ORDER

AVAILABLE NOW
Patented Genetic Stability Program (GSP), The GSP Logo appears on the datasheets for all JAX® Mice inbred strains managed under our patented GSP program.

Appearance & Care

Appearance

Because they're eating extra high-fat chow and often rubbing against their food and/or hydration source during shipping, DIO mice fed a 60% fat diet often appear "greasy." In contrast, control mice have normal looking fur. 

Shipment and acclimation

DIO mice are expected to lose weight during shipment. When they arrive, acclimate them to your vivarium and provide an appropriate high fat diet. A minimum of two weeks may be required to regain the weight lost during transit. Shipping studies using DIO mice aged 17-21 weeks on 3-day truck deliveries showed:

  • 10-15% average weight loss (4-6 g) during transit
  • Mice regained 2 average grams of weight per week when provided 60 kcal% high fat diet and bottled water ad lib, and subjected only to weekly weighing and routine husbandry
  • Average weights surpassed pre-shipping weights 3 weeks after arrival, and were within 2% of pre-shipping weights 2 weeks after arrival

Housing and stress reduction

Reducing stress can help DIO mice perform and gain/maintain the proper weight. 

  • Reduce the possibility of fighting by keeping mice from different shipping containers separate. 
  • Minimize excess noise, vibrations, and other disturbances by placing cages away from areas of heavy traffic and maintaining some space between them and walls. 
  • Prevent food spoilage by completely replacing the food with each cage change. To encourage weight gain, place a small amount of food in the bottom of the cage. 
  • Handle mice gently, slowly, quietly, and as little as possible.
  • Use nesting material, cardboard tubes, or other enrichment to minimize aggression and barbering.

Quality assurance

Before being shipped, DIO mice 12 weeks old or older must meet minimum weight requirements. Some weight loss is expected during shipment. The table below defines the minimum acceptable weight at shipment.

Age (in weeks) Minimum shipment weight at shipment 60% diet (in grams)
12 30
13 32
14  33
15 35
16 36
17 38
18 39
19 42
20 42
21 44
22 44
23 44
24 45
25 45
26 47

Phenotype Information

DIO Phenotypic Data

DIO C57BL/6J mice do not develop overt type 2 diabetes, but they model early stages of the disease with phenotypes that include:

  • Obesity (Figure 1 and Table 1)
  • Mildly elevated non-fasting blood glucose (Figure 2)
  • Glucose intolerance that increases with age (Figure 3)
  • Elevated serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, glucose, and triglycerides (Table 2)

Diets were supplied by Research Diets, Inc. Spleen flow cytometry data are also available (Table 3).

 dio_weight

Figure 1 Body weight growth curve. Male C57BL/6J DIO mice were fed D12492 60 kcal% fat and Control mice were fed D12450B 10 kcal% fat diet between the ages of 6 and 30 weeks. Values represent mean and one standard deviation of at least 40 mice per diet and age, measured on the same day each week.

 dio_glucose

Figure 2 Non-fasted glucose. Blood glucose levels of C57BL/6J males fed either D12492 60 kcal% fat (DIO) or D12450B 10 kcal% fat (Control) diet between the ages of 6 and 30 weeks. Submandibular blood glucose measurements were obtained using a OneTouch Ultra 2 or UltraMini hand-held glucometer that was validated with a control glucose solution on each day of use. Values represent mean and one standard deviation of at least 40 non-fasted mice per diet and age.

 dio_glucose_tolerance

Figure 3 Glucose tolerance tests. Blood glucose levels during glucose tolerance tests (GTT) at 8 weeks (A) and 16 weeks (B) of age. Following a 16 hour fast, an initial submandibular blood glucose reading was taken and mice were administered glucose by IP injection at 2g/kg body weight.  Blood glucose was measured in 30 minute intervals. Values represent mean and one standard deviation of 20 mice per diet and time point.  GTT performed on DIO mice at 26 weeks gave similar results as the 16 week timepoint (not shown).

Table 1 Body Composition. Mice were weighed and then analyzed using a Lunar PIXImus DEXA scanner. Calculations of body composition exclude the head. Values represent mean and one standard deviation of 10 non-fasted mice per diet and age. Results were analyzed by age using two-way ANOVA with Sidak’s multiple comparisons test to identify values that differed significantly between diet groups, using GraphPad Prism version 6.07 for Windows (GraphPad Software).

Age (weeks) Group Body Weight (g) Bone Mineral Density (g/cm2) Bone Mineral Content (g) Bone Area (cm2) Lean Tissue (g) Fat Tissue (g) Percent Fat Tissue

8

DIO

28.1 +/- 2.1a

0.052 +/- 0.002

0.416 +/- 0.028

7.97 +/- 0.39

19.8 +/- 1.2b

8.4 +/- 1.1a

30.0 +/- 1.8a

Control

23.4 +/- 1.3a

0.054 +/- 0.001

0.434 +/- 0.031

8.11 +/- 0.44

18.1 +/- 1.2b

5.3 +/- 0.8a

22.6 +/- 3.2a

16

DIO

41.5 +/- 3.4a

0.057 +/- 0.002

0.528 +/- 0.046

9.33 +/- 0.95

22.0 +/- 1.4

19.5 +/- 3.8a

46.6 +/- 5.7a

Control

30.8 +/- 2.5a

0.059 +/- 0.003

0.458 +/- 0.147

8.60 +/- 0.56

22.0 +/- 2.0

8.8 +/- 2.4a

28.6 +/- 6.3a

26

DIO

51.8 +/- 3.5a

0.053 +/- 0.002

0.536 +/- 0.045

10.06 +/- 0.79

23.9 +/- 1.5

27.8 +/- 2.8a

53.8 +/- 2.6a

Control

38.1 +/- 2.8a

0.058 +/- 0.002

0.532 +/- 0.031

9.20 +/- 0.38

22.9 +/- 1.2

15.2 +/- 2.1a

39.8 +/- 3.1a

a P ≤ 0.0001 b P ≤ 0.05

Table 2 Clinical chemistry. All values were measured from serum collected from submandibular blood except HbA1c, which was measured from submandibular whole blood. Values represent mean and one standard deviation of 10-20 non-fasted mice per age and diet group. Results were obtained using a Beckman Coulter AU680 chemistry analyzer. Results were analyzed by age using two-way ANOVA with Sidak’s multiple comparisons test to identify values that differed significantly between diet groups, using GraphPad Prism version 6.07 for Windows (GraphPad Software).

Age (weeks) Group Total Cholesterol (mg/dL) HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL) LDL Cholesterol (mg/dL) Triglycerides (mg/dL) Free Fatty Acids (mEq/L) Glucose (mg/dL) HbA1c (NGSP %)

8

DIO

173 +/- 23

135 +/- 17

4.6 +/- 0.7

138 +/- 44

1.13 +/- 0.29

215 +/- 39

5.7 +/- 0.3

Control

160 +/- 17

128 +/- 11

4.8 +/- 1.0

119 +/- 45

1.21 +/- 0.29

221 +/- 28

5.7 +/- 0.3

16

DIO

211 +/- 18a

150 +/- 10b

5.2 +/- 0.7

155 +/- 50a

1.18 +/- 0.24

249 +/- 44a

6.4 +/- 0.4

Control

161 +/- 23a

121 +/- 13b

5.9 +/- 1.0

106 +/- 30a

0.96 +/- 0.24

202 +/- 25a

5.8 +/- 0.6

26

DIO

257 +/- 45a

168 +/- 23c

9.8 +/- 3.4

152 +/- 34a

1.02 +/- 0.28

230 +/- 49b

6.7 +/- 0.2

Control

191 +/- 25a

139 +/- 13c

7.4 +/- 1.8

98 +/- 26a

0.81 +/- 0.19

195 +/- 22b

6.1 +/- 0.3

a P ≤ 0.0001 b P ≤ 0.001 c P ≤ 0.01

Table 3 Spleen Flow Cytometry. All cell populations are calculated as percentages of the total viable splenocyte population, except for regulatory T cells that are calculated as the percentage of viable CD4+ cells. Values represent mean and one standard deviation of 10 mice per age and diet group. Parameters were measured using a BD Biosciences LSR II flow cytometer.

Age (weeks) Group B Cells (B220+) T Cells (CD3e+) Helper T Cells (CD3e+, CD4+) Cytotoxic T Cells (CD3e+, CD8+) Regulatory T Cells (CD3e+, CD4+, CD25+) NK T Cells (CD3e+, CD49b+)

8

DIO

58.9 +/- 2.6

23.7 +/- 1.8

14.5 +/- 1.3

8.04 +/- 0.65

12.3 +/- 0.8

0.25 +/- 0.03

Control

58.4 +/- 2.4

26.7 +/- 2.7

16.7 +/- 1.8

8.87 +/- 0.88

12.8 +/- 0.6

0.31 +/- 0.08

16

DIO

65.4 +/- 5.5

20.8 +/- 2.5

12.2 +/- 1.6

7.19 +/- 0.89

16.0 +/- 1.2

0.19 +/- 0.03

Control

61.2 +/- 3.6

22.8 +/- 4.4

13.4 +/- 2.8

7.96 +/- 1.61

16.8 +/- 1.8

0.19 +/- 0.02

26

DIO

65.1 +/- 2.5

18.5 +/- 1.3

10.9 +/- 0.9

6.30 +/- 0.70

15.9 +/- 1.2

0.13 +/- 0.03

Control

63.6 +/- 1.9

23.7 +/- 2.0

13.8 +/- 1.5

8.45 +/- 0.69

15.8 +/- 0.8

0.17 +/- 0.04

Age (weeks) Group Dendritic Cells (CD11b+, SSClo, CD11c+) Neutrophils/Granulocytes (CD11b+, Gr-1+) Eosinophils (CD11b+, SSChi) Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (B220+, CD11c+)

8

DIO

0.68 +/- 0.10

5.66 +/- 0.93

0.11 +/- 0.02

1.50 +/- 0.09

Control

0.60 +/- 0.08

3.61 +/- 0.94

0.10 +/- 0.02

1.43 +/- 0.30

16

DIO

0.63 +/- 0.13

4.02 +/- 1.05

0.17 +/- 0.06

0.98 +/- 0.17

Control

0.51 +/- 0.09

4.59 +/- 1.26

0.23 +/- 0.09

0.87 +/- 0.26

26

DIO

0.55 +/- 0.09

3.14 +/- 0.42

0.13 +/- 0.03

0.83 +/- 0.25

Control

0.64 +/- 0.10

2.68 +/- 0.53

0.12 +/- 0.04

0.96 +/- 0.25

Effect of Rosiglitazone on DIO Mice

Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug commonly used as a reference compound in metabolic research. The following conclusions come from a study performed by In Vivo Pharmacology Services at The Jackson Laboratory to examine the effects of rosiglitazone on the C57BL/6J DIO model. Starting at 20 weeks of age, male C57BL/6J DIO mice were dosed for 6 weeks with either 25mg/kg rosiglitazone or vehicle alone. 

  • Rosiglitazone improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J DIO mice (Figure 1)
  • Insulin sensitivity increased in response to rosiglitazone (Figure 2)
  • Rosiglitazone treatment led to increased body weight (Figure 3)
Fig 1

Figure 1. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) of male DIO mice (n=20). After 6 weeks of treatment, mice were fasted for 16 hours and dosed with 2g/kg glucose by oral gavage. Mean blood glucose levels were measured by tail tip bleed at 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes post administration.

Fig 2

Figure 2. Homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for male DIO mice treated for 6 weeks. Rosiglitazone significantly improved insulin sensitivity (p = 0.000236).

Fig 3

Figure 3. Body weight of male DIO mice (n=20) fed 60 kcal% fat diet and treated subcutaneously for 6 weeks. The weight drop observed at 38 days of treatment corresponds with a 16 hour fasting period required for OGTT.



Diet Information

Inventoried C57BL/6J DIO mice are maintained on D12492 (60 kcal% fat) and control mice are maintained on D12450B (10 kcal% fat) (Research Diets, Inc.)

Macro-nutrient composition of lard-based DIO diets from Research Diets, Inc.

Control Diet D12450B (10 kcal% fat, 3.8 kcal/gram) High Fat Diet D12492 (60 kcal% fat, 5.2 kcal/gram)

Gram %

kcal %

Gram %

kcal %

Protein

19

20

26

20

Carbohydrate

67

70

26

20

Fat

4

10

35

60

Total 

100

100

References

  • Alexander J, Chang GQ, Dourmashkin JT, Leibowitz SF. 2006. Distinct phenotypes of obesity-prone AKR/J, DBA2J and C57BL/6J mice compared to control strains. Int J Obes 30:50–59. PubMed: [16231032]
  • Bush EN, et al. (Metabolic Disease Research, Abbott Laboratories) Adiposity, Leptin Resistance, Hyperrphagia, Hyperglycemia, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High Fat Diets. Endocrine Society Annual Meeting 2001, Poster Session.
  • Collins S, Martin TL, Surwit RS, Robidoux J. 2004. Genetic vulnerability to diet-induced obesity in the C57BL/6J mouse: physiological and molecular characteristics. Physiol Behav 81:243-248. PubMed: [15159170]
  • Fong TM. 2004. Targeting metabolic syndrome. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 13:1203-6. PubMed: [15330751]
  • Freeman HC, Hugill A, Dear NT, Ashcroft FM, Cox RD. 2006. Deletion of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase: a new quantitive trait locus accounting for glucose intolerance in C57BL/6J mice. Diabetes 55:2153-6. PubMed: [16804088]
  • Goren JH, Kulkarni RN, Kahn CR. 2004. Glucose Homeostasis and Tissue Transcript Content of Insulin Signaling Intermediates in Four Inbred Strains of Mice: C57BL/6, C57BLKS/6, DBA/2, and 129X1. Endocrinology 145:3307-23. PubMed: [15044376]
  • Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M, Taskinen MR, Groop L. 2001. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 24:683-9. PubMed: [11315831]
  • Parekh PI, Petro AE, Tiller JM, Feinglos MN, Surwit RS. 1998. Reversal of diet-induced obesity and diabetes in C57BL/6J mice. Metabolism 47:1089-96. PubMed: [9751238]
  • Petro AE, Cotter J, Cooper DA, Peters JC, Surwit SJ, Surwit RS. 2004. Fat, carbohydrate, and calories in the development of diabetes and obesity in the C57BL/6J mouse. Metabolism 53:454-7. PubMed: [15045691]
  • Ricci MR, Ulman EA. 2005. Laboratory Animal Diets: A Critical Part of Your In Vivo Research. Animal Lab News 4:6.
  • Rossmeisl M, Rim JS, Koza RA, Kozak LP. 2003. Variation in type 2 diabetes--related traits in mouse strains susceptible to diet-induced obesity. Diabetes 52:1958-66. PubMed: [12882911]
  • Shapiro ME, et al. (Metabolic Disease Research, Abbott Laboratories) Effects of Treatment of C57BL/6J Mice Fed High vs. Low Fat Diets with Metformin or Rosiglitazone on Adiposity, Food Intake, Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance. Endocrine Society Annual Meeting 2001, Poster Session.
  • Surwit RS, Feinglos MN, Rodin J, Sutherland A, Petro AE, Opara EC, Kuhn CM, Rebuffe-Scrive M. 1995. Differential ffects of fat and sucrose on the development of obesity and diabetes in C57BL/6J and A/J mice. Metabolism  44:645-51. PubMed: [7752914]
  • Surwit RS, Kuhn, CM, Cochrane C, McCubbin, JA, Feinglos MN. 1988. Diet-induced type II diabetes in C57BL/6J mice.Diabetes 37:1163-1167. PubMed: [3044882]
  • Surwit R, Seldin MF, Kuhn CM, Secor C, Feinglos MN. 1994. Diet-induced obesity and diabetes in C57BL/6J and C57BL/KsJ mice. Mouse Genome 92:523-525.
  • Van Heek M, Compton DS, France CF, Tedesco RP, Fawzi AB, Graziano MP, Sybertz EJ, Strader CD, Davis HR Jr. 1997. Diet-induced obese mice develop peripheral, but not central, resistance to leptin. J Clin Invest 99:385-90. PubMed: [9022070]
  • West DB, Boozer CN, Moody DL, Atkinson RL. 1992. Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains. Am J Physiol 262(6 Pt 2):R1025-R1032. PubMed: [1621856]
  • Wong N, Blair AR, et al. The deletion variant of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) does not affect insulin secretion or glucose tolerance. Endocrinology 151(1): 96-102. [19906813]
  • Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, Tan G, Yang D, Chou CJ, Sole J, Nichols A, Ross JS, Tartaglia LA, Chen H. 2003. Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. PubMed:[14679177]

Pricing

Weeks of Age DIO (Stock #380050)
(60% fat diet)*
Controls (Stock #380056)
(10% fat diet)**
USA, Canada & Mexico International USA, Canada & Mexico International
7 $43.06 $55.98 $29.12 $37.86
8 $48.33 $62.83 $32.69 $42.50
9 $53.41 $69.43 $36.12 $46.96
10 $58.84 $76.49 $39.80 $51.74
11 $64.58 $83.95 $43.68 $56.78
12 $70.02 $91.03 $47.36 $61.57
13 $75.76 $98.49 $51.24 $66.61
14 $81.82 $106.37 $55.34 $71.94
15 $88.29 $114.78 $59.71 $77.62
16 $94.81 $123.25 $64.12 $83.36
17 $100.86 $131.12 $68.22 $88.69
18 $106.61 $138.59 $72.10 $93.73
19 $112.56 $146.33 $76.13 $98.97
20 $118.20 $153.66 $79.94 $103.92
21 $123.94 $161.12 $83.83 $108.98
22 $129.69 $168.60 $87.71 $114.02
23 $135.38 $175.99 $91.56 $119.03
24 $141.12 $183.46 $95.45 $124.09
25 $147.07 $191.19 $99.47 $129.31
26 $152.77 $198.60 $103.32 $134.32
27 $158.51  $206.06 $107.21 $139.37
28 $164.25 $213.53 $111.09 $144.42
29 $169.90 $220.87 $114.91 $149.38
30 $175.69 $228.40 $118.83 $154.48

We can also custom make DIO mice to meet your specific research requirements using either standard or custom protocols.

* Diet D12492i (60 kcal% fat)
** Diet D12450Bi (10 kcal% fat)

Ordering


PLACE ORDER

  • C57BL/6J DIO health reports for rooms MP23 and RB12
  • Stock numbers for ordering:
  • To order email orderquest@jax.org, or call 1-800-422-6423 (US, Canada & Puerto Rico) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location)